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Michael Lewis
Michael Lewis

Stop Messing With Our Code ? Google Project Zero

The vulnerability was found as part of a joint vulnerability research project with Natalie Silvanovich and reported to Apple on July 29 2019, followed by the proof-of-concept exploit on August 9, 2019. The vulnerability was first mitigated in iOS 12.4.1, released on August 26, by making the vulnerable code unreachable over iMessage, then fully fixed in iOS 13.2, released on October 28 2019.

Stop messing with our code – Google Project Zero


The in-built restrictions and notifications are merely designed to stop abuse by unskilled attackers simply running the code. It should be noted that skilled attackers likely already have the capability offered by the released exploit code, either from finding vulnerabilities themselves, from reverse engineering patches as has been observed before, or, as 1-day exploit, by for example combining CVE-2019-8646, a remote infoleak bug, with any of the other memory corruption bugs that were found.

C++ is one of the main development languages used bymany of Google's open-source projects. As every C++programmer knows, the language has many powerful features, butthis power brings with it complexity, which in turn can makecode more bug-prone and harder to read and maintain.

All of a project's header files should belisted as descendants of the project's sourcedirectory without use of UNIX directory aliases. (the current directory) or ..(the parent directory). For example,google-awesome-project/src/base/logging.hshould be included as:

For example, if two different projects have a classFoo in the global scope, these symbols maycollide at compile time or at runtime. If each projectplaces their code in a namespace, project1::Fooand project2::Foo are now distinct symbols thatdo not collide, and code within each project's namespacecan continue to refer to Foo without the prefix.

On their face, the benefits of using exceptionsoutweigh the costs, especially in new projects. However,for existing code, the introduction of exceptions hasimplications on all dependent code. If exceptions can bepropagated beyond a new project, it also becomesproblematic to integrate the new project into existingexception-free code. Because most existing C++ code atGoogle is not prepared to deal with exceptions, it iscomparatively difficult to adopt new code that generatesexceptions.

Use type deduction only if it makes the code clearer to readers who aren't familiar with the project, or if it makes the code safer. Do not use it merely to avoid the inconvenience of writing an explicit type.

The fundamental rule is: use type deduction only to make the code clearer or safer, and do not use it merely to avoid the inconvenience of writing an explicit type. When judging whether the code is clearer, keep in mind that your readers are not necessarily on your team, or familiar with your project, so types that you and your reviewer experience as unnecessary clutter will very often provide useful information to others. For example, you can assume that the return type of make_unique() is obvious, but the return type of MyWidgetFactory() probably isn't.

Use names that describe the purpose or intent of the object.Do not worry about saving horizontal space as it is farmore important to make your code immediatelyunderstandable by a new reader. Minimize the use ofabbreviations that would likely be unknown to someone outsideyour project (especially acronyms and initialisms). Do notabbreviate by deleting letters within a word. As a rule of thumb,an abbreviation is probably OK if it's listed in Wikipedia. Generally speaking, descriptiveness should beproportional to the name's scope of visibility. For example,n may be a fine name within a 5-line function,but within the scope of a class, it's likely too vague.

Coding style and formatting are pretty arbitrary, but aproject is much easier to followif everyone uses the same style. Individuals may not agree with everyaspect of the formatting rules, and some of the rules may takesome getting used to, but it is important that allproject contributors follow thestyle rules so thatthey can all read and understandeveryone's code easily.


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